Friday, February 7, 2020

Religion; Islam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Religion; Islam - Essay Example The above paragraph may show a perspective that the Sufi would not agree to. Because, if the Sufi spiritual quest has to be considered rightful it should have been given in the Quran and/or the sunnah of Prophet Mohammad. Andrew Rippin, in his work Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, states that To defend Sufism several Muslims say that it was only a respond to the increasing materialism in the Islamic world. However, this argument does not answer the question. In fact it evades it. As even in early Islamic times and under the Prophet Mohammad’s leadership there was materialism and people enjoyed it. The legal nature of the Islamic system has never addressed the issue of materialism and so it was called insufficient by the people who became Sufis during their search for spirituality. This, Islam was called a religion of unspiritual nature. â€Å"considerable ink has been spent by modern scholarship on the ‘origins’ of Sufism in Islam, as to how far it is ‘genuinely’ Islamic and how far a product, in the face of Islam, of outside influences, particularly Christian and Gnostic.†2 Seyyed Hossein Nasr is a Muslim scholar, who in his work Sufi Essays, has shown his contempt of Islamic scholars of the West who are following the older system of detailing Sufism as some type of strange effect within Islam, and celebrates with the reality that â€Å"many are now willing to accept the Islamic origin of Sufism and the unbreakable link connecting Sufism to Islam.†3 While these are responses to the questions originally posed, they appear to be more worried with the preservation of the external manifestation of Islamic unity, than with significant academic research and assessment. Plenty of traditions about the life of Prophet Mohammad that the Sufis relate are not to be seen in the major hadith collections (Bukhari, Muslim, Kulayni, Ibn Babuya), and thus they are rejected. Nevertheless, within Sufi spheres the customs are preserved - and considered by

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Campbell Soup Employee Engagement Essay Example for Free

Campbell Soup Employee Engagement Essay Douglas Conant, the CEO of Campbell Soup Co. discussed the importance of employee engagement and how Campbell’s strategy to pay attention to this metric paid off for their company. Conant took over in 2001 when Campbells was close to a takeover and its soup sales had drastically declined amid fierce competition. Furthermore, some of its best employees had left the company rather than wait out the hard times. Conant recognized that of all the elements related to corporate culture, employee engagement was the most highly correlated to shareholder returns. Therefore, to turn things around, Conant implemented the Campbell Promise of â€Å"Campbell Valuing People, People Valuing Campbell† with the strategy that: To win in the market place, we believe you must first win in the workplace. I’m obsessed with keeping employee engagement front and center and keeping up energy around it. † In 2002 Conant hired the help of Gallup, a polling and research firm, to better understand his company’s engagement levels. Gallup found that 62% of Campbell’s managers were not actively engaged in their jobs and 12% were actively disengaged. Those numbers were some of the worst for any Fortune 500 firm ever polled. By Gallup standards the ideal level of employee engagement is to have a ratio of 12 actively engaged employees for every disengaged employee. Campbell’s ratio was only 2:1; that is, only 2 actively engaged employees for every disengaged employee. Strategies to Motivate and Engage Employees †¢Bring down barriers, literally – Conant had barbed wire fencing removed from Campbell’s Camden, NJ facility to create pleasant work environment †¢Promoting from within – replaced 300 of the company’s 350 leaders half of whom were promoted from within the company. This â€Å"changed the culture and sent a message that few could ignore. † †¢Annual surveys of all 580 work groups simultaneously – managers review the results with their direct reports and everyone is updated on their progress related to specific goals. Leaders are measured on their ability to inspire trust in those around them. †¢Recognition Events – celebrate at a high level when people do things well. †¢CEO’s acknowledgement – Conant sends out about 20 thank-you notes a day to staffers, on all levels. Open communication every six weeks CEO has lunch with a group of a dozen or so employees to get their perspective on the business, to address problems and to get feedback.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Computer Crime :: essays research papers

According to term computer crime means Criminal activity directly related to the use of computers, specifically illegal trespass into the computer system or database of another, manipulation or theft of stored or on-line data, or sabotage of equipment and data. There are many ways to commit computer crime. Some examples of computer crime are: 1) Accessing a computer, system, or network. 2) Modifying, damaging, using, disclosing, copying, or taking programs or data. 3) Introducing a virus or other contaminant into a computer system. 4) Using a computer in a scheme to defraud. 5) Interfering with someone else ¡Ã‚ ¦s computer access or use. 6) Using encryption in aid of a crime. 7) Falsifying e-mail source information. 8) Stealing an information service from a provider. Over the last twenty years, a technological revolution has occurred, as computers are now an essential element of today ¡Ã‚ ¦s society. In the world of computers, computer fraud and computer crime are very prevalent issues facing every computer user. Computers without any means of security are vulnerable to attacks from viruses, worms, and illegal computer hackers. A definition of computer crime has changed over the years as the users and misusers of computers have expanded into new areas. When computer were first introduced into businesses, computer crime was defined simply as a form of while-collar crimes committed inside a computer system. Computer crimes are hard to define, because the term is not subject to a precise definition, and it requires vast amounts of computer knowledge to understand how and why it happened. If we defined the term "computer", it means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical, or other high speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic, or storage functions, and includes any data storage facility or communications facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device, but such term does not include an automated typewriter or typesetter, a portable hand held calculator, or other similar device. Computer crime laws in many states prohibit a person from performing certain acts without authorization, including others listed above. To prevent computer fraud and computer crime the government had to take a few steps. In 1974, they passed a simple Federal Privacy Act of 1974. A decade later, the computer crime was increasing rapidly, the government amended the acts and made it a federal crime. In the summary of the Acts, they are as follows: „à  Federal Privacy Act of 1974: Goes further that the Freedom of Information Act in that it requires that individuals be able to correct federal information about themselves, by requiring that agency information not be used for alternate purposes without the individual's consent.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Research Paper “Eragon”

A CHARACTER SKETCH OF THE PROTAGONIST IN CHRISTOPHER PAOLINI’S ERAGON A Research Paper Presented to the High School Department Holy Angel University by Zwitsel P. SuarezCristle Yumul Alyssa Joy S. SomeraLorenz A. Zamora Pamela Joy P. Sotto Mark Louie S. Venzon Aira Joy Teopaco Ian Jasper Villena to Mrs, Anna Ruby S. Perez 1 March 2011 â€Å"Eragon† Controlling Purpose: To show the traits of the protagonist in Christopher Paolini’s â€Å"Eragon† through character analysis. 1. Introduction 1. 1. Background of the author 1. 2. Summary of the novel 1. 3. Definition of terms 1. 3. 1. Protagonist 1. 3. 2 Character analysis . 3. 3. Trait 1. 3. 4. Dragon Rider 1. 3. 5. Urgal 1. 3. 6. Varden 1. 3. 7. Ra’zac 1. 3. 8. Alagaesia 1. 3. 9. The Spine 2. Body 2. 1. Background of Eragon 2. 2. Traits of Eragon 2. 2. 1. Brave 2. 2. 2. Vigilant 2. 2. 3. Kind 2. 2. 4. Responsible 2. 2. 5. Determined 2. 2. 6. Persevere 3. Conclusion References Chapter 1 Introduction Erag on is chosen to be the focus of the study because he is the main character of the story. And the researchers will brainstorm and share some ideas how to present the character of Eragon creatively. The story talks about dragons and dragon riders who live in a magical kingdom. People live peacefully there until one day, a young dragon rider betrays his race. His name is Galbatorix. He kills all dragons and riders because he wants to be the most powerful in the kingdom. Becoming successful, he rules the kingdom of Alagaesia. But there is this Elven lady, who is a princess, taking care of the last dragon egg, which is their last and only hope. She sends it to the Spine and there, a young farm boy sees it in the middle of the forest. This young poor boy named Eragon thinks it was a precious blue stone. He tries to sell it but no one gets it. Until one ay, he sees the egg cracking. He is amazed because he sees a cute little dragon coming after him. Without knowing, Eragon’s fate with the dragon is now starting. They are destined to beat Galbatorix’s reign and be the last dragon and rider. The adventures of Eragon will show his different traits, which are being highlighted in this study. Background of the author Christopher Paolini (born November 17, 1983 in Southern California) is an American novelist. He is best known as the author of the Inheritance Cycle, which consists of the books Eragon, Eldest, Brisingr, and a currently untitled fourth book. He lives in Paradise Valley, Montana, where he wrote his first book. Christopher Paolini was raised in the Paradise Valley, Montana area. His family members include his parents, Kenneth Paolini and Talita Hodgkinson, and his sister, Angela Paolini. Home schooled for the duration of his education, Paolini graduated from high school at the age of 15 through a set of accredited correspondence courses from American School of Correspondence in Lansing, Illinois. Following graduation, he started his work on what would become the novel Eragon, the first of a series set in the mythical land of Alagaesia. In 2002, Eragon was published by Paolini International LLC, Paolini's parents' company. To promote the book, Paolini toured over 135 schools and libraries, discussing reading and writing, all the while dressed in â€Å"a medieval costume of red shirt, billowy black pants, lace-up boots, and a jaunty black cap. † Paolini created the cover art for the first edition of Eragon, which featured Saphira's eye. He also drew the maps on the inside covers of his books. In summer 2002, the stepson of author Carl Hiaasen found Eragon in a bookstore and loved it, and Hiaasen brought it to the attention of his publisher, Alfred A. Knopf. Knopf subsequently made an offer to publish Eragon and the rest of the Inheritance cycle. The second edition of Eragon was published by Knopf in August 2003. At the age of nineteen, Paolini became a New York Times bestselling author. Eragon has since been adapted into a film of the same name. Eldest, the sequel to Eragon, was released August 23, 2005. The third book in the cycle, Brisingr, was released on September 20, 2008. Although the Inheritance Cycle was planned as a trilogy, the details for Brisingr had to be expanded to include a fourth book, that has yet to be titled(http://en. ikipedia. org/wiki/Christopher_Paolini). Christopher Paolinis’s abiding love of fantasy and science fiction inspired him to begin writing his debut novel, Eragon when he graduated from high school at fifteen after being home schooled all his life. He became a New York Times best selling author at nineteen. Christopher Paolini lives in Montana, where the dramatic landscape feeds his vision s of Alagaesia(www. Alagaesia. com). Summary of the novel The 15 year old resident of Carvahall, Eragon, starts the book by finding a strange blue stone while traversing The Spine, a mountainous area outside his home. The world in which this novel takes place is known as Alagaesia, under the control of Galbatorix, a fallen Dragon Rider, now evil. These dragon riders used to be the peace keepers of the world, but when his dragon died, Galbatorix went mad and killed his fellow riders. Eragon’s blue stone hatches eventually and from it emerges a dragon. Because of the rarity of the birth (dragons are supposed to be extinct), Eragon keeps his find secret and raises his dragon away from prying eyes, until two dark Ra’zac enter the town looking for the stone. The dragon, named Saphira, leaves the town with Eragon to hide in the forest. While Eragon is away, the Ra’zac kill Eragon’s Uncle Garrow and burn his house down. In response, Eragon declares himself a new Dragon Rider in the vain of those past, the peace keepers, before Galbatorix betrayed them. Eragon takes with him on his journeys Brom, a weaver of stories from his town with knowledge on everything Eragon needs to protect himself and defeat the Ra’zac. The three finally reach the town of Teirm where Brom learns that the Ra’zac are in Helgrind, the four-peaked mountain near the city of Dras-Leona. The three travel there and are lured into a trap set by the Ra’zac, failing to find the revenge that Eragon so desparately seeks. Rescued by Murtagh, an unknown stranger, Eragon and Saphira survive, but his mentor Bram is hurt and soon dies. He reveals before his death though that he was once a Dragon Rider, betrayed by Gaslbatorix like the others, his dragon murdered. After Galbatorix’s coup, Brom became a member of Varden, and sniped the unhatched egg that Eragon eventually found, Saphira’s blue stone. Along with Murtagh, Eragon and Saphira set out to find Varden to help them. Along their journey, Eragon begins to have odd dreams of a mysterious female elf in trouble. When Eragon is captured, he finally meets her, both of them imprisoned together. Murtagh and Saphira strike the prison though and manage to resuce both Eragon and the elf. During the rescue, the three encounter Shade, a horrible creature that should not be awake. The revalation of such a horrible creature loose upon the world causes the three to assume that Galbatorix is in league with darker forces yet. On the way to the Varden, Eragon must deal with an immense influx of foes and dangers, including an army of Urgals chasing them all the way there. The Vardens’ fortress, located in the depths of the Beor Mountains, is host to groups of dwarves, elves, and Varden, who are in league, having sent Saphira’s egg to The Spine where Eragon found it. Given a short rest, the three along with the Varden and their allies must prepare for the arrival of the Urgal as the approach the mountain. They learn for sure that Galbatorix is in league with the dark forces from a stolen messenge and soon they are in a battle with the Urgal. During the battle, the Urgals are close to defeating the Varden until Eragon defeats the Shade they encountered earlier. However, the battle with the Shade leaves him horribly disfigured and in pain. When the battle ends, closing the first chapter in the Inheritance trilogy, Eragon is preparing to go study with the elves(http://www. wikisummaries. org/Eragon). Definition of terms Protagonist- A protagonist (from the Greek protagonistes, â€Å"one who plays the first part, chief actor†) is the main character (the central or primary personal figure) of a literary, theatrical, cinematic, or musical narrative, around whom the events of the narrative's plot revolve and with whom the audience is intended to share the most empathy(http://en. wikipedia. rg/wiki/Protagonist). Character Analysis- a systematic investigation of the personality of an individual with special attention to psychologic defenses and motivations, usually undertaken to improve behavior(http://medical-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/character+analysis). Trait- A distinguishing feature, as of a person's character(http://www. thef reedictionary. com/trait). Dragon Rider- A Dragon Rider is a person, Elf or Human, bonded by thought with a Dragon. A Dragon Rider is identified by the â€Å"shining palm,† the Gedwey Ignasia. In the Ancient Language â€Å"dragon rider† is Shur'tugal(http://www. shurtugal. com/wiki/index. hp5/Dragon_Rider). Urgal- Urgals were a race of sentient creatures that inhabited Alagaesia. Forced by Durza into the service of Galbatorix, they were considered evil by most humans, but were not inherently so. Though most were uneducated, they made up with brute force, exceptional fighting and commanding skills. They were used as expendable â€Å"shock troops† of Galbatorix's army. The Urgal language was a simple, guttural language. Only a few phrases were known to outsiders, and most of them were related to war and fighting. Also, they were one of the races capable of using magic(http://inheritance. wikia. com/wiki/Urgal). Varden- The Varden were members of an alliance that opposed the rule of King Galbatorix and his Empire. They consisted mainly of men and dwarves, though there was a conjunction between the Varden and the elves, as well. The Varden also enlisted the aid of a group of magicians known as the Du Vrangr Gata (translated â€Å"The Wandering Path†). The Surdans are also known to aid the Varden in transporting supplies and shelter those who wish not to fight(http://inheritance. wikia. com/wiki/Varden). Ra’zac- The Ra'zac (or Lethrblaka when full-grown) were one of the several ancient races that followed the humans across the sea to Alagaesia. They were a race that fed on humans and likely came from the same homelands. Ra'zacs' breath have the power to paralyze humans in a dream-like state, however, it barely clouds the minds of dwarves and is ineffective against elves altogether(http://inheritance. wikia. com/wiki/Ra’zac). Alagaesia- Alagaesia is a large continent with variegated climate and terrain, home to a wide number of creatures such as humans, elves, dwarves, Urgals and dragons. Several of the races inhabiting Alagaesia, including humans, elves, and Urgals, were not native to the land, having migrated to Alagaesia in centuries past(http://inheritance. ikia. com/wiki/Alaga%C3%ABsia). The Spine- The Spine was a mountain range that ran down the west coast of Alagaesia. It had only one major pass, along the Toark River, which isolated the coast. Most people in the Empire feared the Spine and the danger it represented, especially since Galbatorix lost nearly half his army in it during his campaign against the Dra gon Riders. After this incident, hardly anyone dared to venture near to this dangerous mountain range(http://inheritance. wikia. com/wiki/The_Spine). Chapter 2 This part of the discussion highlights the different traits of Eragon. Background of Eragon Eragon is the main protagonist of the Inheritance Cycle, written by Christopher Paolini. Eragon is a male, the first in a new generation of Dragon Riders. He was trained by Brom an old story teller from his village and Oromis, and was chosen by Saphira, a blue dragon, to be her Rider. Traits of Eragon Brave Bravery is the condition or quality of being brave; courage(http://www. thefreedictionary. com/bravery). As a Spanish matador once said, â€Å"Bravery is believing in yourself, and that thing nobody can teach you. † (El Cordobes, 1936), being brave is having trust in yourself. It is the ability to confront fear, pain, risk/danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. Eragon is a brave person. The deer he was hunting had led him deep into the Spine, a range of untamed mountains that extended up and down the land of Alagaesia. Strange tales and men often came from those mountains, usually boding ill. Despite that, Eragon did not fear the Spine—he was the only hunter near Carvahall who dared track game deep into its craggy recesses. Eragon’s bravery is also proven when he battled with his enemies like Shade, Urgals, and Ra’zac which aren’t easy to kill. Vigilant Vigilance the ability to maintain attention and alertness over prolonged periods of time(http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Vigilance). Being vigilant is being alert. One of Eragon’s trait is being vigilant. It is proven in the first chapter of the novel. When Eragon saw a polished blue stone and decided to pick it. But before he picked the stone, he watched for danger for several long minutes, but the only thing that moves was the mist. Cautiously, he released the tension from his bow and moved forward. Moonlight cast him in pale shadow as he stopped before the stone. He nudged it with an arrow, then jumped back. Nothing happened, so he warily picked it up. This only proves that Eragon is vigilant in his actions. He makes sure that nothing dangerous will happen to him if he picks up to blue stone he saw in the Spine. Kind Being kind is a way of living that keeps giving long after the kind thoughts, words, and actions have taken place. Kindness is a force without force, and it goes well beyond manners to the very heart of how people respect and treat one another. Kindness is the act or the state of being kind —ie. arked by goodness and charitable behavior, mild disposition, pleasantness, tenderness and concern for others. It is known as a virtue, and recognized as a value in many cultures and religions(http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Kindness). Eragon is kind. It is proven in the 5th chapter of the story, when he spent a long time with the dragon. He untied it, set it on his shoulder, and went to explore the woods. The snow-laden trees watche d over them like solemn pillars of a great cathedral. In that isolation, Eragon showed the dragon what he knew about the forest, not caring if it understood his meaning. It was the simple act of sharing that mattered. Eragon kept the dragon, he fed her, took care of her, and treated her like in a nice way even if he doesn’t know anything about the dragon. Responsible Responsibility is a duty or an obligation to satisfactorily perform or complete a task (assigned by someone, or created by one's own promise or circumstances) that one must fulfill, and which has a consequent penalty for failure(http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/responsibility. html). Responsible—it is one of the words that best describes Eragon. As he accepted his fate onto being a dragon rider, he also accepted its responsibilities, to care for Saphira, to rescue Arya, to help the Varden, and to fight the Empire. All of these responsibilities as the dragon rider were fulfilled through his trait of being responsible. Determined â€Å"A determined soul will do more with a rusty monkey wrench than a loafer will accomplish with all the tools in a machine shop. †(Robert Hughes, 1978). Determinedness is devoting full strength and concentrated attention to(http://www. thefreedictionary. com/determinedness). Being determined is being strongly motivated to succeed. It is having a strong desire for success or achievement Eragon is determined to fulfill his mission as the dragon rider that will save Alagaesia from the evilness of King Galbatorix. And because of his determinedness, he works hard to learn about sparring, his enemies, the ancient language, and how to use his magic properly through his teacher, Brom in order for him to be successful in his mission of killing his enemies. Persevere â€Å"Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no hope at all.. †(Dale Carnegie, 1981). Perseverance is steady persistence in a course of action, a purpose, a state, etc. , especially in spite of difficulties, obstacles, or discouragement(http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/perseverance). Perseverance falls under the larger category of courage because it often involves continuing along a path in the midst of and after having faced opposition and perhaps failure. Perseverance involves the ability to seek a goal in spite of obstacles. Eragon is a persevere dragon rider. Being persevere, he continues his journey to fulfill his mission even if there are many obstacles along his way. In the first part of the story, Eragon was attacked by the opponents which caused him to get a lot of wounds. There was also a time when Urgals under the command of the Shade, Durza captured Eragon and imprisoned him. In spite of facing these challenges/obstacles, Eragon still continues to stand and doing his best for his duties to be fulfilled. Chapter 3 Conclusion Through character analysis, the researchers have shown the traits of the main protagonist in Christopher Paolini’s â€Å"Eragon†. The traits of Eragon are proven through the use of different references. He is brave for having the courage to confront fear or danger. He is vigilant for maintaining attention and alertness over prolonged periods of time. He is kind for sharing the goodness in his heart and having concern to others. His sense of responsibility is shown through the tasks that were given to him because he fulfilled those tasks. He is determined for devoting his full strength and attention to his mission and for desiring success to it. And lastly, he possesses perseverance because he continues to go on to fulfill his tasks even if there are many obstacles along the way. Eragon is the protagonist or hero in the story. The researchers therefore conclude that he possesses good traits as the main character. References Paolini, C. (2002). Eragon. New York: Alfred A. Knopf publishing house. â€Å"Christopher Paolini† Retrieved February 10, 2011, From http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Christopher_Paolini. â€Å"About the Author† Retrieved February 10, 2011, From www. Alagaesia. com. â€Å"Eragon Summary† Retrieved February 10, 2011, From http://www. wikisummaries. org/Eragon. â€Å"Protagonist† Retrieved February 15, 2011, From http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Protagonist. â€Å"Character Analysis† Retrieved February 15, 2011, From http://medical-dictionary. hefreedictionary. com/character+analysis. â€Å"Trait† Retrieved February 15, 2011, From http://www. thefreedictionary. com/trait. â€Å"Dragon Rider† Retrieved February 15, 2011, From http://www. shurtugal. com/wiki/index. php5/Dragon_Rider. â€Å"Urgal† Retrieved February 15, 2011, From http://inh eritance. wikia. com/wiki/Urgal. â€Å"Varden† Retrieved February 15, 2011, From http://inheritance. wikia. com/wiki/Varden. â€Å"Ra’zac† Retrieved February 15, 2011, From http://inheritance. wikia. com/wiki/Ra’zac. â€Å"Alagaesia† Retrieved February 15, 2011, From http://inheritance. wikia. com/wiki/Alaga%C3%ABsia.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Geography for Kids

ThoughtCo includes a large collection of resources that are appropriate for children. This article provides easy access to the best of our resources for kids who are aspiring geographers, have a geography quiz coming up at school, or are part of a bee. Geography 101 As a starting point, Geography 101 provides a bunch of information about geography with links to articles all over ThoughtCo. Among others, youll find information on these topics: The definition of geography.The history of geography.The different branches and divisions of geography.Information on studying geography and working as a geographer. Preparing for the Geography Bee The National Geography Bee is for kids in the fourth through eighth grade. Kids can learn about the Bee and how to prepare. If your school is one of the 1,000 that participate in the Geography Bee, the information and links in this article can help your students prepare. All About Geography This article teaches kids some of the important basics of geography and answers questions such as these: What is geography?How does geography differ from geology?What do geographers do?How does one become a geographer? Basic Earth Facts This page for kids includes a listing of fun facts about the planet earth such as these: The size of the earth.The number of countries on our planet.The highest and lowest points on the surface of the earth.The age of the earth.And, more... Geography Quiz Think youre a geography expert? While this quiz might be a challenge to most kids, the true geographic fanatic will appreciate the challenge. Both kids and adults will test the depth of their geographic knowledge with these fifteen questions. U.S. State Capitals This is a great resource for kids who need to memorize the United States state capitals for their geography class. From Juneau (Alaska) to Augusta (Maine), youll find every capital along with population, education, and income information for each city.   Capitals of Every Country This listing is a great reference for kids studying the countries in geography class. Did you know that Yerevan is the capital of Armenia or that Paramaribo is the capital of Suriname? This article can help you brush up on your knowledge of important world cities. All About Physical Geography Physical geography is the branch of the science with which most people are familiar. It includes the study of  climates, flora, and fauna, the atmosphere, landscape features, erosion, and more. This article gives an overview of the physical geography and provides numerous links to further information. All About Cultural Geography Geography isnt all about mountains, bodies of water, and other physical features of the earth. With this article, youll learn about the human side of geography. Youll learn how languages, economics, governmental structures, and even the arts are connected to the physical features of our world. We hope these resources help you and your kids learn geography. Enjoy!

Friday, December 27, 2019

What Is the Copenhagen Interpretation

There is probably no area of science more bizarre and confusing than trying to understand the behavior of matter and energy at the smallest scales. In the early part of the twentieth century, physicists such as Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and many others laid the foundation for understanding this bizarre realm of nature: quantum physics. The equations and methods of quantum physics have been refined over the last century, making astounding predictions that have been confirmed more precisely than any other scientific theory in the history of the world. Quantum mechanics works by performing an analysis on the quantum wavefunction (defined by an equation called the Schrodinger equation). The problem is that the  rule about how the quantum wavefunction work seem to  drastically conflict with the intuitions we have developed to understand our day-to-day macroscopic world. Trying to understand the underlying meaning of quantum physics has proven to be much more difficult than understanding the behaviors themselves. The most commonly taught interpretation  is known as the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics ... but what is it really? The Pioneers The central ideas of the Copenhagen interpretation were developed by a core group of quantum physics pioneers centered around Niels Bohrs Copenhagen Institute through the 1920s, driving an interpretation of the quantum wavefunction that has become the default conception taught in quantum physics courses.   One of the key elements of this interpretation is that the Schrodinger equation represents the probability of observing a particular outcome when an experiment is performed.  In his book The Hidden Reality, physicist Brian Greene explains it as follows: The standard approach to quantum mechanics, developed by Bohr and his group, and called the Copenhagen interpretation in their honor, envisions that whenever you try to see a probability wave, the very act of observation thwarts your attempt. The problem is that we only ever observe any physical phenomena at the macroscopic level, so the actual quantum behavior at the microscopic level is not directly available to us. As described in the book Quantum Enigma: There is no official Copenhagen interpretation. But every version grabs the bull by the horns and asserts that an observation produces the property observed. The tricky word here is observation.... The Copenhagen interpretation considers two realms: there is the macroscopic, classical realm of our measuring instruments governed by Newtons laws; and there is the microscopic, quantum realm of atoms and other small things governed by the Schrodinger equation. It argues that we never deal directly with the quantum objects of the microscopic realm. We therefore need not worry about their physical reality, or their lack of it. An existence that allows the calculation of their effects on our macroscopic instruments is enough for us to consider. The lack of an official Copenhagen interpretation is problematic, making  the exact details of the interpretation difficult  to nail down. As explained by John G. Cramer in an article entitled The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Despite an extensive literature which refers to, discusses, and criticizes the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, nowhere does there seem to be any concise statement which defines the full Copenhagen interpretation. Cramer goes on to try to define some of the central ideas that are consistently applied when speaking of  the Copenhagen interpretation, arriving at the following list: The uncertainty principle - Developed by Werner Heisenberg in 1927, this indicates that there exist pairs of conjugate variables which cannot both be measured to an arbitrary level of accuracy. In other words, there is an absolute cap imposed by quantum physics on how accurately certain pairs of measurements can be made, most commonly the measurements of position and momentum at the same time.The statistical interpretation - Developed by Max Born in 1926, this interprets the Schrodinger wave function as yielding the probability of an outcome in any given state. The mathematical process for doing this is known as the Born rule.The complementarity concept - Developed by Niels Bohr in 1928, this includes the idea of wave-particle duality and that the wave function collapse is linked to the act of making a measurement.Identification of the state vector with knowledge of the system - The Schrodinger equation contains a series of state vectors, and these vectors change over time and with o bservations to represent the knowledge of a system at any given time.The positivism of Heisenberg - This represents an emphasis on discussing solely the observable outcomes of the experiments, rather than on the meaning or underlying reality. This is an implicit (and sometimes explicit) acceptance of the philosophical concept of instrumentalism. This seems like a pretty comprehensive list of the key points behind the Copenhagen interpretation, but the interpretation is not without some fairly serious problems and has sparked many criticisms ... which are worth addressing on their own individually. Origin of the Phrase Copenhagen Interpretation As mentioned above, the exact nature of the Copenhagen interpretation has always been a bit nebulous. One of the earliest references to the idea of this was in Werner Heisenbergs 1930 book  The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory, wherein he referenced the Copenhagen spirit of quantum theory. But at that time—and for several years after—it was also really the only interpretation of quantum mechanics (even though there were some differences between its adherents), so there was no need to distinguish it with its own name. It only began to be referred to as the Copenhagen interpretation when alternative approaches, such as David Bohms hidden-variables approach and Hugh Everetts Many Worlds Interpretation, arose to challenge the established interpretation. The term Copenhagen interpretation is generally attributed to Werner Heisenberg when he was speaking in the 1950s against these alternative interpretations. Lectures using the phrase Copenhagen Interpretation appeared in Heisenbergs 1958 collection of essays,  Physics and Philosophy.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Differences Between Modernism And Modernism - 1174 Words

There were two different periods that attempted to do something revolutionary. These two fields were the romantics period and modernists period. In the early twentieth century, both the romantics and modernists periods were known for artists disregarding the old rule-books and discovering new ground. Artists attempted to create something that was different from the past. Whether it was using a newer technique or expanding their creativity. The romantic period focused on the creativity of an individual’s art. However, after reading the two lectures, I believe the modernism period is when artists really started to discover innovative ways to create art. There were many artists in each genre of painting, composing, and poetry who had strong†¦show more content†¦One may not realize what he is trying to portray within his paintings. I found Picasso’s painting of â€Å"Guernica† rather interesting because of how unique and interesting it is. Picasso created th is photo to reenact what happened during Spain’s Civil War. In the 1930s, Spain was a part of a deadly civil war. The city of Guernica was ruined and thousand of people died throughout this war. There is a lot going on throughout this painting and to some, can seem overwhelming. When I first looked at this painting, I was confused how it looks like the war. This painting has no color to it and it also has very sharp angles. Picasso’s paintings do discard the old rule-book. This artifact discards the old rule-book in some ways but fails to discard the old rule-book in other ways. All of Picasso pieces of art break new ground because of the technique he used to create each piece. Creating a piece that has so many sharp angles and it overlaps each other. This painting looks like multiple paintings combined into one. Picasso used cubism in his paintings. Cubism is defined as a painting with exaggerated shapes that are rearranged to make a certain object. This means a human ’s face created by Picasso would not look like a normal face. It would be created out of shapes and different angles. Picasso was known for creating these types of paintings. Cubism gave new paintings more volume when in the past, paintings didn’t have this type of technique and didn’t haveShow MoreRelatedDifferences Between Modernism And Postmodernism1411 Words   |  6 PagesThere are a lot of differences between modernism and postmodernism. The first is that modernism began in the late 19th century and lasted until the 20th century, specifically from the year 1890s to 1945. According to Oak (2008), â€Å"†¦ modernism and postmodernism highlights the difference in the approaches towards life.† A good example would be, during the modernist era rational and logical thinking was encouraged as well as being objective and postmodernism does not and is subjective. 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